These coins are contemporary counterfeits and most of them were produced between 1782-1799, although some ‘dates’ are significantly earlier (and there is a good reason for this). They are easily spotted due to their unusual legends – a deliberate ploy in order to “evade” the counterfeiting laws of the time.
In 1742, an Act of Parliament was passed that made the manufacturing and uttering of counterfeit copper coins an imprisonable offence, i.e. counterfeiting copper coinage was a simple misdemeanour, which carried a sentence of two years imprisonment.
- In terms of law enforcement, this seemed to have fallen on deaf ears, for nine years later ()in 1751) , another Act of King George II had to be enacted … calling for the previous Act to be enforced !
- This seemed to have little effect on the counterfeiters
- Two years later, in 1753, it was estimated that less than 40% of the coin in circulation were genuine
- So, in 1771, yet another Act (this time by King George III) was passed, making it a felony to counterfeit copper coinage, or to attempt to sell counterfeits at below their ‘notional’ face value.
- Magistrates were empowered to order searches, and to destroy coining machinery
- More importantly, from 1771 counterfeiting copper became a capital offence, i.e. it carried the death sentence !
- The regal copper counterfeiting laws, however, had a loophole
These counterfeiting laws were written to cover regal coinage but if a coin was made that was not an EXACT COPY of the regal coin, it was considered to be a token, and the law did not apply – hence the term evasion halfpennies. Thus, the counterfeiters simply switched from making counterfeit coins to making what became known as “evasion” tokens that looked similar to but not an exact copy of the regal coinage.
- These pieces usually had a bust on the obverse — often a likeness of King George III, or some other well-known figure of the times.
- Usually the images would be the same but the motto “Georgius III Rex” would be changed to “George Rules”, “Georgius III Pax”, “Britain Rules” or such like
- Sometimes the portrait of the king would face in the wrong direction
- More often than not, the bust was of someone else (but looked vaguely similar)
The public accepted them for a variety of reasons.
Firstly, there was a desperate need for small change and a chronic shortage of copper coinage existed. Secondly, the average person in the street could not read, and although the law discerned between correct and incorrect legends, it seems that the average person could not.
- 2 regal halfpennies produced enough material for 3 evasion halfpennies, hence an instant profit of 50%
- it was definitely a profitable, low-risk activity for the counterfeiters
Who produced Evasion Halfpennies?
The manufacturers were contemporary counterfeiters and they operated ‘border line illegal’ mints, so they rarely include their names. Sometimes, an initial can be seen on the rare ‘higher grade’ specimens but most were deliberately produced in very poor condition as to pass for regal coins.
In the 1790’s, Birmingham was home to fifteen token making manufacturers many of whom were described in local trade directories as button makers. Among these were William Lutwyche and Peter Kempson, who apparently were also responsible for producing ‘evasions’, especially between 1796 and 1798, when orders for trade tokens diminished.
- William Lutwyche is a very well known manufacturer of ‘conder’ or trade tokens
- He is, perhaps, best known for his many deliberate ‘mules’ specially made for the lucrative collectors’ market of the day
There is at least one exception where, uniquely, a manufacturer actually had the cheek to “sign” his name !
William Bagnall’s production of ‘signed’ evasion halfpennies obviously brought his name to the attention of the City of London Police in 1815 when he and both of his sons were found themselves in court, for counterfeiting offences.
Source: Annual Register of World Events Vol 57 (1816) – A Review of the Year 1815.
William Bagnall, the elder (1769-1827), William Bagnall, the younger, and Thomas Bagnall, a father and his two sons, were placed at the bar, and tried for coining and counterfeiting certain silver pieces, resembling the dollars issued by the Governor and Company of the Bank of England.
John Foy, a police officer, deposed, that the prisoners lived at No. 9, Seward-street, Clerkenwell, and that he having received information from some of the neighbours whose houses overlooked Bagnall‘s workshop, repaired there, accompanied by his brother and two others. They waited till they heard the machine at work, and then two of them knocked at the front door, whilst two entered from behind. The elder Bagnall opened the door, and on securing him they found four dollars apparently new, and resembling those issued by the Bank, in his hand. The eldest son was observed to drop six similar pieces on the approach of the officers. The machine or press was so heavy that to work it with ease and expedition, he believed would require the exertions of three persons. Besides the pieces found on the. two elder prisoners, there was an iron tray containing one Spanish dollar, several with the impression hammered out, and a paper parcel containing thirty fit for currency. To the identity of these, as well as of the dies for making the impression, he could speak positively, having made his marks upon them at the time. On taking the prisoners into custody, the elder Bagnall observed, that he trusted the officer would represent the business in the most favourable light, as he had not employed base metal, but had only changed the impression of genuine Spanish dollars.
The elder Bagnall then put in a written paper, in which he solemnly declared that he never had the intention to commit a fraud, nor any knowledge that he was transgressing the laws of his country. He had made the dollars in the course of his business as a dye-sinker, and in the execution of an order which he had received from a person, who said he intended to circulate them in Holland. Whatever the Court might determine with respect to himself, he hoped they would consider his sons as innocent, and as acting under his influence. He should call witnesses, who he trusted would prove that up to this period of his unintentionally erring, he had maintained the character of an honest man. Several witnesses gave the prisoners an excellent character, and stated that the machine in question was employed by the Bagnalls, as dye-sinkers and ornamental engravers.
- The jury, after a few minutes consideration, found all the prisoners guilty; but recommended the two sons, one of whom is 26, and the other 18 years of age, to pardon, as acting under paternal influence.
- Sentence: 14 years transportation.
The National Archives show that;
- The 2 sons were later pardoned by John Silvester, Recorder of London in 1816.
- Grounds for clemency: the jury recommended mercy at the trial of the prisoners, both of previous good conduct and the distress of the prisoner’s families, especially Thomas who has a pregnant wife and 2 children now near starvation.
- William Bagnall (The elder), one of 201 convicts transported on “Fame”, 09 October 1816 to New South Wales, Australia.
(State Records: New South Wales Colonial Secretary Index, 1788-1825)
The economic disadvantages
Although highly profitable to the manufacturers, the use of these ‘lightweight’ evasion halfpennies was disadvantageous to the end user. There were two ways that this would manifest itself.
- The merchant, upon being offered a group of these lightweight coppers, could weigh them — and give the customer only the value of the coppers based on weight
- The other method the merchant could use was to increase his prices to cover his losses when trying to redeem the token coinage
Either way, the customer was cheated if he had accepted the “coin” at full value. In line with Gresham’s Law, this ‘bad money’ tended to stay in circulation whereas the regal coinage was kept out of circulation.
Nearly all are found in lower grades because they were deliberately MADE to look worn, so that the public would accept them. As such, grades are not really important — many were struck so weakly that the finest known is “fair.”
Some are common, but most are scarce to rare. They were first listed by Atkins in 1891 and, more recently, by Cobwright (1993). Most all have a bust on the obverse, and either a Seated figure or a Harp on the reverse. This list only contains those with a harp on the obverse.
Like the earlier Voce Populi tokens of George III, evasion halfpennies found their way to the American colonies in large numbers where it was taking time for the new American currency to be accepted.
Early American colonists used English, Spanish and French money while they were under English rule. However, in 1775, when the Revolutionary War became inevitable, the Continental Congress authorized the issuance of currency to finance the conflict. Paul Revere made the first plates for this “Continental Currency.” Those notes were redeemable in Spanish Milled Dollars. The depreciation of this currency gave rise to the phrase “not worth a Continental.” To rectify this, the USA began to mint silver dollars in 1794 – albeit a mere 1,758 pieces were minted.
On March 5, 1787, the New York State legislature produced a report discussing the principle coppers then in circulation. Two min findings emerged from their survey :-
- A few genuine British half-pence of George the Second, and some of an earlier date, the impressions of which are generally defaced.
- A number of Irish half-pence, with a bust on one side and a harp on the other.
From this, and related reports, it has been suggested that all George III halfpence in America were either contemporary counterfeits or evasion tokens. Although most were indeed counterfeit, it seems a few regal George III coppers did circulate in America.
After the U.S. Constitution was ratified, Congress passed the “Mint Act” of April 2, 1792, which established the coinage system of the United States and the dollar as the principal unit of currency. By this Act the U.S., became the first country in the world to adopt the decimal system for currency. The first U.S. coins were struck in 1793 at the Philadelphia Mint and presented to Martha Washington. Gradually, they phased out all of the foreign coins and underweight tokens that circulated prior to the mid-1790’s.
List of Known “Irish” Evasion Halfpennies
These counterfeits were not necessarily manufactured in Ireland or for circulation in Ireland – they merely have an Irish harp on the reverse design. We now know that many were manufactured in Birmingham and at least one, infamously issued by the Bagnall’s of Clerkenwell in London. Many ended up in the newly independent American Colonies, although at this stage, Britain did not fully recognise their independence or borders, leading to the less well known Anglo-American War of 1812-1815.
They also seem to have circulated in England, despite looking like the Irish regal halfpennies and farthings. Although the banks accepted “Irish money” at 13 pennies to the English shilling, it seems these counterfeit Irish halfpennies remained in circulation – the English public were obviously not as discerning as the English banks.
Key to table below
- Aitkins Catalogue Number
- Bust = L(eft) or R(ight) facing
- Many of the obverses do not feature King George III and those that do, have a fictional or deliberately blundered legend
- All of these coins have a harp on the reverse + fictional or deliberately blundered legends
- Most of the dates bear no relation to when the coins were struck + many dates are completely absent
|3||R.||ALFRED THE GREAT||* MUSIC . CHARMS|
|4||R.||ALFRED THE GREAT||* SOUTH WALES *|
|6||L.||ALFRED . THE . GREAT||SHEBERNIA .:.||17-96|
|8||R.||AUCTORI * * PLEBIS *||HISPAINIOLA||17-36|
|15||L.||AUCTORI * * PLEBIS *||NORTH WALES||1769|
|16||L.||AUCTORI * * PLEBIS *||NORTH WALES||1799|
|17||L.||AUCTORI * * PLEBIS * (longer ribbons)||MUSIC * CHARMS .||1775|
|21||L.||AUCTORI * * PLEBIS *||MUSIC * CHARMS||17-75|
|22||L.||BRUTUS SEXTUS (with T F under)||DELECTAT RUS *|
|29||L.||CELESTIN II POPE .||NORTH WALES TOKEN|
|30||L.||CELESTIN II POPE .||NORTH WALES||17-69|
|32||L.||CELESTIN II POPE .||NORTH . WALES||1761|
|43||L.||CLAUDUIS . ROMANUS .||HEBRIDES||17-81|
|44||L.||CLAUDUIS . ROMANUS .||HIBERNIA||17-71|
|45||L.||CLAUDUIS . ROMANUS .||NORTH . WALES||17-71|
|46||R.||CLAUDUIS ROMANUS||DELECTAT . RUS *|
|58||R.||CLAUDUIS: ROMANUS .||MUSIC CHARMS|
|59||L.||CLEMENT PONT MAX||HINC . NOSTRÆ. CREVERE.ROSÆ.|
|61||L.||COLONEL KIRK.||NORTH WALES.|
|62||L.||COLONEL KIRK.||* NORTH WALES *|
|63||L.||COLONEL KIRK.||NORTH WALES||17-95|
|64||L.||COLONEL KIRK.||NORTH WALES||17-96|
|80||R.||CORNWAL LIS . IND.||HIBERNIA||17-76|
|81||R.||CORNWAL LIS . IND.||HIRARMIA||17-69|
|82||R.||CORNWAL LIS . IND.||HIBERIA||17-76|
|87||R.||CORNWAL LIS IND||HIBERIA|
|88||R.||CORNWAL LIS IND||HIBERNIA||17-76|
|93||R.||DUKE OF BEDFORD||* MUSIC CHARMS *|
|94||R.||DUKE OF YORK||BRITANNIA S HERO|
|96||R.||DUKE OF . YORKE||HALFPENNY||17-81|
|97||R.||DUKE OF . YORKE||HIBERNIA||17-69|
|99||R.||GANGES .III. RATE .||STRATFOR DENSIS .||17-81|
|100||R.||GBOIUISR INI RAX||HIBERNTA||1766|
|113||R.||GEORCIVS III KEX||NORTH WALES|
|118||L.||GEORGE GORDON||SOUTH WALES||17-96|
|126||R.||GEORGE GORDON||NORTH WALES||1769|
|128||L.||GEORGE IL MAG||NORTH WALES TOKEN|
|132||L.||GEORGEIVS WASHINGTON||* NORTH WALES *|
|132a||L.||GEORGEIVS WASHINGTON Edge: Payable in LANCA ONDON OR BRISTOL||* NORTH WALES *|
|133||L.||GEORGEIVS WASHINGTON||* * NORTH WALES * *|
|135||R.||GEORGE LII REN||YELARIES||17-71|
|136||R.||GEORGEON IL PES||HIBERNIA||16-96|
|137||R.||GEORGE REIGNS||SOUTH WALES||17-96|
|143||L.||GEORGE REIGNS||SOUTH WALES||17-96|
|146||L.||GEORGE RULE||DELECT TATRUS||17-71|
|151||L.||GEORGE . RULED .||BRITAIN’S ISLES||17-56|
|165||L.||GEORGE. RULES. (No dot before Rules)||NORTH WALES||17-69|
|167||L.||GEORGE .. RULES.||DELECT TATRUS||17-71|
|168||L.||GEORGE .. RULES.||NORTH WALES||17-81|
|170||L.||GEORGE . RULES . I.G.||HEBRIDES||17-81|
|171||L.||GEORGE RULES (No dots or initials)||HILAR IES||17-71|
|172||L.||GEORGE RULES (No dots or initials)||HISPAN IOLA.||17-36|
|173||L.||GEORGE RULES (No dots or initials)||NORTH WALES||17-60|
|174||L.||GEORGE RULES (No dots or initials)||NORTH WALES||17-69|
|175||L.||GEORGE RULES (No dots or initials)||NORTH WALES||17-71|
|176||L.||GEORGE RULES (No dots or initials)||NORTH WALES||J7.7J|
|177||L.||GEORGE RULES (No dots or initials)||NORTH WALES||17-75|
|178||L.||GEORGE . RULES I.G.||NORTH WALES||J7-8J|
|179||L.||GEORGE . RULES I.G. (T under)||NORTH WALES||J7-8J|
|180||L.||GEORGE RULES||NORTH WALES||17-82|
|182||R.||GEORGE RULES||BRITAIN’S . ISLES||1756|
|185||R.||GEORGE . RULES .||NORTH WALES||17-56|
|186||R.||GEORGE . RULES . (rude workmanship)||NORTH WALES||17-61|
|187||R.||GEORGE . RULES .||NORTH WALES||17-69|
|188||R.||GEORGE . RULES .||NORTH WALES||17-75|
|189||R.||GEORGE . RULES .||NORTH WALES||17-82|
|190||R.||GEORGE . RULES .||NORTH WALES||17-82|
|191||R.||GEORGE . RULES .||NORTHWALES||17-82|
|193||R.||GEORGE . RULES .||HEREKNIA||1769|
|194||R.||GEORGE . RULES .||HIBEKNIA T D||1760|
|200||L.||GEORGES . RULES .||HEBR IDES||1771|
|206||R.||GEORGE SUSSEX||NORTH WALES||17-61|
|210||R.||GEORGE . TEL . REN .||YELAREBIH||17-77|
|214||R.||GEORGIUS III REX||NORTH WALES||1782|
|222||L.||GEORGIVS.II REX .||HIBERNIA||17 51|
|223||R.||GEORGIVS.II REX .||HIBERNIA||17 81|
|228||R.||GEORGIVS III REX||HIBERNIA||1769|
|229||R.||GEORGIVS III REX||HIBERNIA||1781|
|231||R.||GEORGIVS TIL REN||HIDERALA||17-69|
|235||L.||GEORGUIS II REX||HIBERNIA||17-76|
|241||R.||GEOR IOUS III VIS||NORTH WALES||17-61|
|249||R.||GEORUGIS III. RUX||HIBERNIA||17-76|
|251||R.||GEOTUISR INI RAX||HIBERNTA||17-66|
|260||R.||GLACIOUS DEI . PAX||HEBRIDES||17( )|
|266||R.||GLORIOVS III VES||HEBRIDES “||17-81|
|267||R.||GLORIOVS III VES||HIBEKNIA|
|275||R.||GLORIOVS . IER . VES .||HEBRIDES||17-91|
|276||L.||GLORIOVS . IER VIS .||HIRAROSA .||17-69|
|284||R.||GLORIOVS . IER VIS .||NORTH WALES||17-61|
|291||L.||GLORIOVS PELLEW .||* MUSIC CHARMS|
|298||R.||GLORIOUS . TIL . ROX .||HOS SANNA .||17-61|
|299||R.||GLORIVS IER . VES||HEBRIDES||17-81|
|303||R.||GLORIUS IES . VES||HEBRIDES||17-79|
|308||L.||. GOD SAVE THE KING||NO BE BGTA||16 96|
|313||R.||GOD.SAVE.THE.KING.||MUSIC * CHARMS||17-75|
|314||R.||GOD SAVE THE KING||BE AS YOU SEEM TO BE||1796|
|316||R.||GOD SAVE THE KING||* NORTH * * WALES *|
|319||R.||GOD SAVE THE REALM||MUSIC * CHARMS||17-75|
|323||L.||GOD SAVE US ALL .||HIBERNIA||16-96|
|324||L.||GOD SAVE US ALL .||MUSIC * CHARMS||17-75|
|325||L.||GOD SAVE US ALL .||NOBEBGTA||16-96|
|326||L.||GOD SAVE US ALL .||* NORTH * * WALES *|
|330||R.||GOERGIUV . III . PAX||HIBEKNIA||17-69|
|339||R.||GORGIVS III . REX .||HIBERNIA||17-81|
|343||R.||GREGORIVS .III. PON .||HEBRIDES||17-81|
|347||R.||GREGORVS III PAX||HEBRIDES||17-81|
|348||R.||GREGORVS III PAX||HEBRIDES||17-97|
|352||L.||GREGORY . TI . ROW .||HIBERNIA (?)||17-71|
|353||L.||GREGORY . TI . ROW .||NORTH WALES||17-71|
|372||R.||GRUMRUIS . ITI NEX||HIBERNIA||17-76|
|373||R.||GRUMRUIS . ITI NEX||HIRARMIA .||17-76|
|374||R.||GSOIUISE . INI . BAX||NTBRRNIA||17-66|
|387||R.||GSOIUISE . INI . BAX||MUSIC * CHARMS||17-75|
|388||R.||GSOIUISE . INI . BAX||STRATFOR DIENSIS .||17-81|
|389||L.||GULIELMUS SHAKSPEAR||HISPAN NIOLA||17-91|
|392||R.||GULIEMUS SHAKESPEAR||* NORTH * * WALES *|
|400||R.||IOHN KEMP .||NORTH WALES||17-96|
|402||R.||IOHN SON PUGALIST||* MUSIC CHARMS|
|403||R.||IOHN SON PUGALIST||* NORTH * * WALES *|
|404||R.||IOHN SON PUGALIST||* * NORTH WALES * *|
|408||R.||LONG LIVE THE KING .||NORTH . WALES||17-61|
|410||R.||LONG LIVE THE KING .||* MUSIC CHARMS|
|412||R.||LONG LIVE THE KING .||. FRAN . ET . NAVR .||17-71|
|413||L.||MAY.PEACE.BE.ESTABLISHED HILA RIAS||. FRAN . ET . NAVR .|
|414||R.||OLIVER CROMWELL||* SOUTH WALES *|
|416||R.||PAYAYLE*AT.I.WILLIAMS.||MUSIC * CHARMS||17-75|
|422||L.||PAYABLE.AT.W.WILLIAMS.||NORTH * WALES|
|425||L.||PAYABLE . AT . WM .||DELECTAT RUS *|
|426||R.||PRINCEPS WALLIÆ .||DELECTAT * RUS *|
|428||R.||QUINTUS SEXTUS .||MUSIC * CHARMS .|
|435||R.||SR BEVOIS SOUTHAMTON||* NORTH * * WALES *|
|436||R.||SR BEVOIS SOUTHAMTON (Hair tied with 2 bows)||* NORTH * * WALES *|
|437||R.||SR BEVOIS SOUTHAMTON (One bow and an end)||* NORTH * * WALES *|
|438||R.||SR BEVOIS SOUTHAMTON (Helmed)||* NORTH * * WALES *|
|440||L.||THOMAS SEYMOUR .||* MUSIC CHARMS|
|441||L.||THOMAS SEYMOUR . (Larger and older bust)||* MUSIC CHARMS|
|442||L.||THOMAS SEYMOUR . (Larger and older bust)||* SOUTH WALES *|
|443||R.||THOMAS SEYMOUR .||* * NORTH WALES * *|
|448||L.||WILLIAM S WILLIAMS||* NORTH * * WALES *|
Irish Evasion Farthings
The list of Evasion Farthings with an Irish harp on the reverse is a short one !
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