A medieval depiction of an army sailing to Waterford city (from Jean Creton, Histoire rimée de Richard II)

Richard II’s second expedition to Ireland

In late 1397, with the Irish lords of both Ulster and Leinster once more at war, Richard was already planning to return. His second expedition, in June and July 1399, again brought a significant army to Ireland, albeit less than half the size of the force he brought with him on his previous visit. Richard II…