Ancient British (Celtic) ringmoney - found in Lincolnshire in 1980s

What is Celtic Ring Money ?

Long before the introduction of struck coinage into ancient Celtic Europe, copper and gold rings were used as currency by Celtic tribes and were often worn on clothing or tied together by ropes. These particular rings, often referred to as “proto-currency”, were created in ancient Moesia (now Bulgaria) as long ago as 7th century BC.…

The Enigmatic Coins of the Celtic Tribes of Britain

Celtic coinage is the most intriguing and varied of all the British coins since no one knows specifically for whom, when or where they were produced.  To date, over 45,000 of ancient British and Gaulish coins have been discovered in Britain and all of these have been recorded at the Oxford Celtic Coin Index, but…

O’Brien Coin Guide: The Unofficial Irish Token Coinages of George III (1760-1820)

Introduction The late 18th century is a complicated time from the perspective of collecting tokens insofar as several dealers began to manufacture their own tokens for collectors, i.e. these did not circulate. They doubled and tripled their profits by deliberately producing mules, i.e. mis-matching obverse and reverse dies. They then increased their profits further by…

The Irish Armstrong farthing legend reads as follows :- CAROLVS II D G M B FRA ET HIB REX which translates and expands to :- Charles II by the grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland

O’Brien Coin Guide: Armstrong’s ‘Patent’ Irish Farthings (1660-61) for Charles II

Upon his restoration to the crown in 1660, King Charles II granted a patent to Sir Thomas Armstrong to ‘coin farthings’ for the next twenty years and all other (unofficial) farthings were to be prohibited.   In 1661, two royal proclamations were issued prohibiting the issuing and use of brass or copper tokens In 1662,…

1760 George II (1727-1760), Copper Halfpenny, Type IV

O’Brien Coin Guide: The Irish ‘Regal Coinage’ of George II (1736-1760)

George Augustus was King of Great Britain & Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11th June 1727 until his death on 25th October 1760. Both of George’s parents committed adultery In 1694 their marriage was dissolved on the pretext that Sophia had abandoned her husband She was confined to Ahlden House and…