Checklist (Hiberno-Norse)

Irish coin cabinet 7

This page is a perpetual “work-in-progress” and will be updated daily via daily Irish Coin Cabinet posts. In time, it will become a “check-list” for Irish coin collectors, detectorists and anyone looking for basic information + an image on individual Irish “hammered” coins and their major die variations.

To find something quickly on this long page, press the Ctrl key + F – a search box will appear on the bottom left of your screen. Type the word you are looking for and click on the down arrow (to go to that word).

Proto-Currency

Hiberno-Norse Kingdom of Northumbria

Hiberno-Norse Kingdom of York

  • Anlaf Guthfrithsson c. 939-941
    • Silver penny (Flower type) York mint / Moneyer: Ingelgar
      • Anlaf Guthfrithsson was also King of Dublin (934-941)

Hiberno-Norse Kingdom of Dublin

  • Phase I (c. 995-1015)

  • Contemporary Copies of English Anglo-Saxon Pennies in the name of Sihtric

    • Class A – Crux issue (King Aethelred II)
    • Class B – Long Cross issue (King Aethelred II)
      • Dublin Mint
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: CAR
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: EIOMNS
        • in the name of Sihtric’ / Moneyer: FAEREMIN
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: SIULF
          • Mint Uncertain
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: COLBRAND
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: HEREUC
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: LEIFSTEIN / LEIFSTEM
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: SMIRIN
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: STIRCAR
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: WULFRIC
          • English Mint(s) & Moneyer(s)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: AEILRINE (of London?)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: BEORHTNOTH (of Winchester?)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: BYRHTIOD (of Rini?)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: BYRHTMAER (of Winchester)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: COLGRIM (of Lincoln?)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: EMIRNIE (of London)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: GIOTHMAN (of London)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: GODLEOW (of Stanford)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: GODWINE / GIOMDINE / GIODWINE (of Derby?)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: GODWINE (of Wilton)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: GODWINE (of Winchester?)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: LIEFTHOTH (of Otford)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: LYFING (of London)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: OSGOT (of Derby)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: OSGOT / OSGUN (of Lincoln?)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: SCOT (of Stamford?)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: STEORGER (of York?)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: UNULF (of York)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: WULFWINE (of Oxford)
      • Dublin Mint
      • Dublin Mint
    • Class C – Helmet issue (King Aethelred II) 
      • Dublin Mint 
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: CAR
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: EIOMNS
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: FAEREMIN
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: GAR
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: GODRIC
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: SIULF
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: Unknown
          • English Mint(s) & Moneyer(s)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: KOLGRIMR (of York)
    • Class D – Small Cross issue (King Aethelred II)
      • Dublin Mint
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: AEFELN
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: COLBRAND
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: FAEREMIN
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: IIDREMIN
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: NDERNIN
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: RINGULF
        • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: Unknown 
          • Mint Uncertain
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: COLBRAND
          • English Mint(s) & Moneyer(s)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: ANRTHORR (of York)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: BYRHTIOTH (of Winchester)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: DGDOAN (of London)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: GODERIC (of Stanford)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: LEOFWINE (of Leic)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: OSGOT (of Derby)
            • in the name of ‘Sihtric’ / Moneyer: WULSIGE (of Chester)
    • Class E – Quatrefoil issue (King Cnut)
    • Class FPointed Helmet issue (King Cnut)
  • Phase II (c. 1015-1035)

  • Long Cross & Pellets
    • Weights vary from 1.5g down to 1.3g (later in the series)
    • Sihtric breaks with copying the design of contemporary English issues and, instead, reverts to a Long Cross & Pellets reverse design – in the name of Sihtric, King of Dublin. The Long Cross reverse became the archetypal form for Hiberno-Norse coinage at this period.
      • Blackburn described Phase II coins as ‘a coinage of national identity’ suggesting that its production represented a substantial coin reform.
    • Dublin Mint
    • Mint: Uncertain

Echmarcach mac Ragnaill (King of the Isles) forced Sihtric to abdicate in 1036.


Who minted coins after Sihtric left Dublin? 

Echmarcach mac Ragnaill / Ímar mac Arailt / Murchad mac Diarmata ???

Who minted the Hiberno-Norse Phase IV coins?            Murchad mac Diarmata ?

  • Scratched Die Issues
    • ? Mint (Presumably, Dublin)
      • Reverse dies seem to have part-punched / part-engraved
      • Dolley’s seven phase model of Hiberno-Norse coinages has stood up to scientific scrutiny from the 1960s up until very recently. Numismatic researchers are now beginning to question his dates (and, to a lesser extent, his categories) from his Phase IV forward.
        • Should they now be ‘grouped’ according to symbolism or should they be put in chronological order?
  • Phase V (c. 1065-1100)

Who minted the Hiberno-Norse Phase IV coins?            ???

  • Crude Imitative Issues

    • ? Mint (Presumably, Dublin)
      • Mostly poor imitations of late Anglo-Saxon, Norman and North European issues. There is no clear order, i.e. they can be organised into groups by symbol type, or in chronological order following the sequence of their English counterparts.
      • Phase V of Dolley’s classification has been considered “a bit of a dumping ground” by one leading Irish numismatic expert and, recently, several doctoral candidates studied this series in greater detail and are beginning to re-think Dolley’s Phase V.
        • The ‘big question’ is: How quickly did the Hiberno-Norse copy the Anglo-Saxon, Norman and other European coins they seem to imitate, i.e. how closely do they follow their date ranges, or should we be looking at them in a different way?
  • Phase VI (c. 1100-1130)

  • Very Late Degraded Long Cross Imitations
    • ? Mint (Presumably, Dublin)
      • At the turn of the twelfth century, all five Hiberno-Norse settlements (Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Cork and Limerick) had grown into large towns and their populations were well integrated into Irish society, geo-politics, trade and commerce. That said, their coins were lightweight and very thin.
        • Archaeologists question how useful they would have been for external trade. 
  • Class A – Bust Left
  • Class B – Bust Right
    • Type 2a: Crude draped bust right / Voided long cross; pellets and scepters in opposite quarters
  • Phase VII (c. 1130-1150)

  • Semi Bracteates and Bracteates
    • ? Mint (Presumably, Dublin)
      • Towards the middle of the 12th C, Hiberno-Norse coinage had degraded to the point where the designs were ‘ghosting’ onto the other side (semi-bracteates).
      • Eventually, they only struck one side and the reverse image shows on the other side – similar to the way a more modern ‘brockage’ error would. The effect is not as apparent due to the lack of lettering on these coins.
  • Class A Semi-Bracteates (double sided / designs + ‘ghosted’ on either side)
    • ? Mint (Presumably, Dublin)
  • Class B – True Bracteates (coins struck on one side only)
    • Voided Cross & Sceptres
    • Voided Cross, with Pellets & Sceptres
    • Plain Cross & Quatrefoil
    • Plain Cross, with various Symbols in angles
    • Voided Cross, with various Symbols in angles
    • Cross Pommée, within Quatrefoil
    • Cross, with Trefoils & Quatrefoils (alternating in angles)
    • Cross, with Lis in each angle
    • Cross Potent, with annulets in angles
    • Hammer Cross over Quatrefoil
    • Short Cross Pommée over Long Cross
    • Small Cross Pattée in inner circle, alternating Sceptres & I’s around
    • Cross Pattée, Pellet in each angle
    • Small Cross Pommée in inner circle
    • Cross Fleury in inner circle, annulets alternating with Crescents & Pellets in angles
    • Double Cross Pommée, with Fleury Sceptres in angles
    • Double Cross Pommée, over Hammer Cross
    • Cross over Quatrefoil, with Pellets in each angle
    • Cross Fleury over Long Cross
    • Long Cross, with ‘formalized’ head in each angle
    • Long Cross, with alternating ‘formalized’ head & crosses in angles

Hiberno-Manx Imitations of Hiberno-Norse Coinage

  • Contemporary Copies of Hiberno-Norse, Phase II Pennies

Scandinavian Imitations of Hiberno-Norse Coinage

Late Medieval Gaelic Regnal Coinage ???