Checklist (Hammered)

The Irish Coin Cabinet, Irish Coin Ddatabase, Old Currency Exchange, Dublin, Ireland

This page is a perpetual “work-in-progress” and will be updated daily via daily Irish Coin Cabinet posts. In time, it will become a “check-list” for Irish coin collectors, detectorists and anyone looking for basic information + an image on individual Irish “hammered” coins and their major die variations.

To find something quickly on this long page, press the Ctrl key + F – a search box will appear on the bottom left of your screen. Type the word you are looking for and click on the down arrow (to go to that word).

Proto-Currency

Hiberno-Norse Kingdom of Northumbria

Hiberno-Norse Kingdom of York

  • Anlaf Guthfrithsson c. 939-941
    • Silver penny (Flower type) York mint / Moneyer: Ingelgar
      • Anlaf Guthfrithsson was also King of Dublin (934-941)

Hiberno-Norse Kingdom of Dublin

  • Phase I (c. 995-1015)

  • Contemporary Copies of English Anglo-Saxon Pennies in the name of Sihtric

  • Phase II (c. 1015-1035)

    • Sihtric breaks with copying the design of contemporary English issues and, instead, reverts to a Long Cross & Pellets reverse design – in the name of Sihtric, King of Dublin. The Long Cross reverse became the archetypal form for Hiberno-Norse coinage at this period.

Echmarcach mac Ragnaill (King of the Isles) forced Sihtric to abdicate in 1036.


Who minted coins after Sihtric left Dublin?

Scandinavian Imitations of Hiberno-Norse

  • Contemporary Copies of Hiberno-Norse, Phase I Pennies

Hiberno-Manx Imitations of Hiberno-Norse

  • Contemporary Copies of Hiberno-Norse, Phase II Pennies

Late Medieval Gaelic Regnal Coinage ???

 


Anglo-Norman

  • Henry II

  • issued no Irish coinage in his own name
    • John, as Lord of Ireland, 1185 (First Coinage, Profile Issue)
    • John de Courcy, Lord of Ulster & Connacht, 1185 (First Coinage)
      • Downpatrick Mint
        • Halfpenny
          • Farthing
  • Richard I (the Lion Heart) 

  • issued no Irish (or English) coinage in his own name
    • John, as Lord of Ireland, 1190-98 (Second Coinage, Dominus / Cross Potent Issue)

    • John de Courcy, Lord of Ulster, 1195 (Second ‘Anonymous’ Coinage)

      • Carrickfergus Mint
        • Farthing
      • Downpatrick Mint
    • John, as Lord of Ireland1198-99 (Third Coinage, Dominus / Cross Pommée Issue)

      • Dublin Mint
      • Carrickfergus Mint
        • Halfpenny (ROBERD)
      • Limerick Mint
        • Halfpenny (SIWARD)
      • Waterford Mint
        • Halfpenny (GAIFRI)
        • Halfpenny (WILLELMUS)
  • John

    • John, as Lord of Ireland1198-120? (Hybrid REX / Cross Pommée Issue)

      • Carrickfergus Mint
        • Halfpenny (SALMO)
        • Halfpenny (THOMAS)
    • The Irish Coinage of King John (REX issue)

  • Henry III

    • Dublin Mint
    • Group 1
      • Class 1a – Double triangle, cinquefoil in bottom right-hand corner
      • Class 1b – Single triangle, cinquefoil in bottom right-hand corner
        • Moneyer: Davi (David of Enfield)
        • Moneyer: Ricard (Richard Bonaventure)
      • Class 1c – Sexfoil in bottom right-hand corner, small triangle on band of crown
        • Moneyer: Davi (David of Enfield)
        • Moneyer: Ricard (Richard Bonaventure)
      • Class 1d – Sexfoil in bottom right-hand corner, double band on the crown
        • Moneyer: Davi (David of Enfield)
        • Moneyer: Ricard (Richard Bonaventure)
    • Group 2
    • Dublin Mint
      • Class 2a – Small or no shoulders on bust
        • Moneyer: Davi (David of Enfield)
        • Moneyer: Ricard (Richard Bonaventure)
      • Class 2b – Jewelled/ornate crown, cinquefoil in bottom right-hand corner
        • Moneyer: Davi (David of Enfield)
        • Moneyer: Ricard (Richard Bonaventure)
      • Class 2c – Three curls to either or both sides of the face (normally only 2)
        • Moneyer: Davi (David of Enfield)
        • Moneyer: Ricard (Richard Bonaventure)
      • Class 2d – Extra wide shoulders
        • Moneyer: Davi (David of Enfield)
        • Moneyer: Ricard (Richard Bonaventure)
  • Edward I

    • 1st Irish Coinage (c. 1276)
      • Distinguishing features:
        • Edward continued to use the ‘long cross’ reverse style of Henry III
        • A trefoil of pellets below the truncation of Edward’s bust
        • one pellet often being hidden in the drapery
        • no symbols before the E of EDW
      • Dublin Mint
        • Penny
    • 2nd Irish Coinage (1280-83)
      • Distinguishing features:
        • New reverse design (cross and pellets) and no moneyer’s name
        • Crowned bust in triangle, trefoil of pellets on breast
        • A pellet before the E of EDW
        • A Roman ‘N’ on the reverse (Dublin coins only)
      • Dublin Mint
        • Penny
          • Class 1a – no ‘punctuation’ in obverse legend
          • Class 1b – pellet before ‘EDW’ in obverse legend
          • Class 1c – Lombardic ‘N’ in reverse legend
          • Contemporary forgery (blundered reverse legend)
        • Halfpenny
        • Farthing
      • Waterford Mint
        • Penny
        • Halfpenny
        • Farthing
    • 3rd Irish Coinage (1294-1302)
      • Distinguishing features:
        • A trefoil of pellets below the bust
        • A small cross ‘+’ before EDW on the obvers,
        • or a Lombardic ‘N’ in the reverse legend
      • Dublin Mint
        • Penny
        • Halfpenny
    • 4th Irish Coinage (1294)
      • Distinguishing features:
        • A rose on breast of the king (in place of trefoil in earlier issues)
      • Dublin Mint
      • Waterford Mint
        • Penny
        • Halfpenny
    • 5th Irish Coinage (1295)
    • 6th Irish Coinage (1300)
      • Distinguishing features:
        • A single pellet below bust but not in the other angles of triangle
      • Dublin Mint
        • Penny
        • Halfpenny
        • Farthing
  • Edward II 

  • issued no Irish coinage in his own name
  • Edward III

    • Dublin Mint
      • Penny – probably issued but no specimens found
      • Halfpenny
      • Farthing
  • Richard II 

  • issued no Irish coinage in his own name
  • Henry IV 

  • issued no Irish coinage in his own name
  • Henry V 

  • issued no Irish coinage in his own name
  • Henry VI (First Reign, 1422-61)

  • Edward IV (First Reign, 1461-70)

Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was the King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death. He was the first Yorkist King of England. Before becoming king, he was Duke of York, Earl of March, Earl of Cambridge and Earl of Ulster. His Irish coinage comprised 4 different issues and what has been explained by Irish numismatists as ‘rogue’ issues from mints of Cork and/or Wexford.

From an Irish numismatic perspective, Edward IV’s second reign was a constant monetary policy battle between his own administration (who wanted good silver for tax payments, his Norman lords (who wanted a poorer quality coinage, so it would disappear across the water into the king’s coffers, and the new merchant classes (who wanted a better coinage, so they could trade internationally). These conflicting monetary policies produced no less than six different coinages in just two decades.  

  • Richard III

    • Roses on Cross (1483)
      • Groat
    • Three Crowns (1483-85)
      • Groat
      • Half Groat – ordered to be minted but none found (yet)
      • Penny – ordered to be minted but none found (yet)
      • Halfpenny – ordered to be minted but none found (yet)
      • Farthing – ordered to be minted but none found (yet)

Tudor

  • Henry VII

    • Three Crowns issue (1483-87)
    • Geraldine issue
    • Portrait issue (1490-1505)
      • Groat
      • Half Groat – ordered to be minted but none found (yet)
      • Penny – ordered to be minted but none found (yet)
      • Halfpenny – ordered to be minted but none found (yet)
      • Farthing – ordered to be minted but none found (yet)
  • Henry VIII

    • 1st Irish Coinage (Harp issues)
      • Groat, crowned “H” and “A” (for Henry and Anne Boleyn, 1534-35)
      • Groat, crowned “H” and “I” (for Henry and Jane Seymour, 1536-37)
      • Groat, crowned “H” and “K” (for Henry and Katherine Howard, 1540)
      • Half-Groat
    • 2nd Irish Coinage (King Alone issues)
  • Edward VI

  • Mary I

    • Shilling
    • Groat
    • Half-Groat
    • Penny
  • Philip & Mary

    • Shilling (1553-54)
    • Groat (1555-58)
    • Penny
  • Elizabeth I

    • 1st Irish Coinage (de-based silver, 1558)
    • Seated Greyhound ‘Countermark’ on Edward VI Irish Shilling (1560)
    • 2nd Irish Coinage (fine silver, 1561)
      • Shilling
      • Groat
    • 3rd Irish Coinage (de-based silver, 1601-02)
      • Shilling
      • Sixpence
      • Threepence
      • Copper Penny
      • Copper Halfpenny

House of Stuart

  • James I

    • 1st Irish Coinage (1603-1604) / Rev. TVEATVR VNITA DEVS
      • 1st Bust (squared beard)
      • 2nd Bust (pointed beard)
        • Shilling, mint mark: Martlet (1604)
    • 2nd Irish Coinage (1605-1607) / Rev. HENRICVS ROSAS REGNA IACOBVS
  • Charles I

    • Emergency Coinage / Coins of Necessity
      • 1642 Inchiquin Money
      • 1642 Annulet Money
        • Ninepence
        • Sixpence
        • Fourpence (Groat)
        • Threepence
      • 1642 Dublin Money
        • Crown
        • Halfcrown
      • 1642-43 Confederate Catholic Coinage
      • 1643-44 Ormonde Money
        • Crown
        • Halfcrown
        • Shilling
        • Ninepence
        • Sixpence
        • Fourpence (Groat)
        • Threepence
        • Twopence (Half Groat)
      • 1646 Blacksmith Money 
        • Halfcrown
      • 1646 Ormonde Gold Pistoles
      • 1646-47 Coinage of the Southern Cities of Refuge
        • Bandon (Bandon Bridge)
          • Farthing
        • Cork
          • Shilling
          • Sixpence
          • Farthing
        • Kinsale
          • Farthing
        • Youghal
          • Farthing
      • 1649 Post-Mortem Ormonde Money
        • Crown
        • Halfcrown

Interregnum

  • Oliver Cromwell, as Lord Protector – issued no Irish coinage during his term of office
    • The Commonwealth issued English silver and gold coins which circulated in Ireland
      • Parliament suspended the royal patents to produce copper farthings, resulting in a chronic shortage of small change in Ireland
        • various small traders issued unofficial tokens
  • Thomas Cromwell, as Lord Protector – issued no Irish coinage during his term of office
    • small traders continued to issue unofficial tokens