Irish Coin Daily: Hiberno-Norse Silver Penny (Phase I, Class C – Helmet Type) in the name of Æthelred II / Moneyer: Faeremin (of Dublin)

The Irish Coin Cabinet. The Old Currency Exchange. Irish Coin Dealer. Buying Irish coins. Selling irish coinage. Dubin. Ireland.

Date: c. 1009-1011

Hiberno-Norse. Phase I (Sihtric Anlafsson). Circa 995/7-1020. AR Penny (18mm, 1.01 g, 6h). Imitating Æthelred II Helmet type. Dublin mint; Færemin, moneyer. Struck circa 1004-1010. + ÆÐELRÆD RE+ Λ(NG)L•, bust left wearing armor and radiate helmet / + FÆ NEM NMΘ ÐУHI, voided long cross, with pellet in centre and triple crescent ends, over square with trefoil at each point. The Old Currency Exchange, Dublin, Ireland.



Hiberno-Norse Silver Penny, Phase 1, Class C (Imitating Æthelred II Helmet type). Struck in the name of Æthelred II. Dublin mint signature, Moneyer: Faeremin

  • Diameter: 18 mm
  • Weight: 1.01 g

References: Blackburn, Hiberno -; SCBI 8 (BM), 39 var. (legends); O’S -; D&F 15; SCBC 6113

  • Near Extremely Fine (nEF), flan cracks.
    • Very rare


  • Bust left, wearing armour and radiate helmet
  • Legend: + ÆÐELRÆD RE+ Λ(NG)L•
    • Translates as: Æthelred, King of England


  • Voided long cross, with pellet in center and triple crescent ends, over square with trefoil at each point.
  • Blundered Legend: + FÆ NEM NMΘ ÐУHI
    • Translates as: Faeremin, Moneyer of Dublin


  • Ireland


  • Hiberno-Norse
    • Phase I
    • Class C (Helmet issue)
      • Mint = Dublin
      • Moneyer = Faeremin
  • Hammered

Additional Information:

The British numismatist Michael Dolley classified Hiberno-Norse coins into seven distinct “phases”, covering a period of over 150 years.

About the year 995, Sihtric III “Silkbeard”, (also spelled Sitrick, Sigtrygg, Sitriuc and many other variants) King of Dublin, issued silver pennies that closely imitated the contemporary Anglo-Saxon coins of English King Aethelred II.

  • Some of Sihtric’s coins bear his own name, and spell out the name of Dublin (“DYFLIN,”); others simply copy the names of Aethelred and various English mints and moneyers.
  • These were the first coins struck in Ireland
    • The reason for issuing them was probably both
      • practical (to pay mercenaries)
      • symbolic (to enhance the king’s prestige by displaying his wealth and power)

Phase I coinage lasted 20-25 years, and went through several design changes.

  • The most common type imitates Aethelred’s “Long Cross” issue, bearing an obverse image of a bare-headed king draped in a cloak. The “voided cross” reverse could serve as a guide for cutting the coin into halves or quarters, since no smaller denominations were struck.
    • Class A          996-1001         Crux issue (King Aethelred II)
    • Class B        1002-1008          Long Cross issue (King Aethelred II)
    • Class C        1009-1011          Helmet issue (King Aethelred II)
    • Class D        1011-1016          Small Cross issue (King Aethelred II)
    • Class E        1016-1018          Quatrefoil issue (King Cnut)
    • Class F        1024-1030          Pointed Helmet issue (King Cnut) in the name of Sihtric – none known
    • Class ?        1024-1030          Pointed Helmet issue (King Cnut) in the name of Anlaf Sihtricsson – one ‘unique’ piece recently found

Other Coins in this Series:

Further Reading:




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