Medieval banking had to overcome the dangers of the Usury Laws and the Italians did so by organising themselves into merchant banking societies, rather than acting as individual traders.

The Great Monetary Crisis of 13th C Europe

Introduction: Medieval history is often taught as a power struggle between nobles fighting for control of their inherited lands via a series of military campaigns, often ending in a decisive battle that has been portrayed within a 19th century ‘nationalist’ mindset. My own education, from what I can remember of primary school and the old…

John (as Lord, 1172-1199), Second coinage, Halfpenny, type Ib, Dublin, Adam, adam on dvv, 0.63g (S 6205, DF 39)

Irish Coin Daily: Prince John’s Silver Halfpenny (Second Coinage, Dublin Mint / ADAM)

Date: c. 1190-1199 Country: Ireland Category: Anglo-Norman House of Anjou Angevin Richard I (the Lion Heart) John as Lord of Ireland Second Coinage (Dominus / Cross Potent Issue)  Dublin Mint Moneyer: Adam Hammered     Further Reading: O’Brien Coin Guide: Why did Henry II not issue coins under his own name for Ireland? O’Brien Rare Coin…

John as Lord of Ireland - Dublin / Norman - Cross Potent Halfpenny 1190-1198 AD. Second coinage, group I

Irish Coin Daily: Prince John’s Silver Halfpenny (Second Coinage, Dublin Mint / Norman)

Date: 1190-1198 Description: Country: Ireland Category: Anglo-Norman House of Anjou Angevin Richard I (the Lion Heart) John as Lord of Ireland Second Coinage (Dominus / Cross Potent Issue) Dublin Mint Moneyer: Norman Hammered Further Reading: O’Brien Coin Guide: Why did Henry II not issue coins under his own name for Ireland? O’Brien Rare Coin Review:…

John, as Lord. 1190-1199. AR Farthing (0.35 gm). Second coinage. Dublin mint. Mascle with trefoils at corners / ADAM counter-clockwise around cross. The D not retrograde, as on most other known specimens. Seaby 6220; D&F 41. VF, deeply toned. Particularly fine style obverse. Very rare

Irish Coin Daily: Prince John’s Silver Farthing (Second Coinage, Dublin Mint / ADAM)

Date: c. 1190-1199 Description: John, as Lord. 1190-1199. Silver Farthing (0.35 gm). Second coinage. Dublin mint.  Seaby 6220; D&F 41. Particularly fine style obverse. Very Fine (VF) Deeply toned Very rare. Obverse: Mascle with trefoils at corners Reverse: ADAM counter-clockwise around cross. The D not retrograde, as on most other known specimens Country: Ireland Category: Anglo-Norman…

John as Lord, Second DOMinus coinage, Halfpenny, Waterford mint, c.1190 - c.1199, S.6208. 0.77 g., moneyer Gefrei. Obv. legend IOHANNES DOM around diademed facing head. Rev. legend GEFREI . ON WAT around voided cross potent with annulet. Good Very Fine with good centering and all legends well struck. Old tone. Seldom seen moneyer for this scarce issue

Irish Coin Daily: Prince John’s Silver Halfpenny (Second Coinage, Waterford Mint / Gefrei)

Date: c. 1190-1199   Description: John (as Lord of Ireland), Silver Halfpenny (0.77 g). Second (‘DOMinus’) coinage, Group II, cross pommée. Waterford mint; Gefrei, moneyer. Struck circa 1198-1199. S.6208 Gefrei; DF39. Good Very Fine (gVF) Toned, well centered Scarce Obverse: Diademed facing head IOHANNES DOM Translates and expands to “John Dominus” (Lord of Ireland) Reverse: Voided…

John. As Lord of Ireland, 1172-1199. AR Farthing (10mm, 0.27 g). Second (‘DOMinus’) coinage, Group II, cross pommée. Waterford mint; Gefrei, moneyer. Struck circa 1198-1199. Mascle with trefoils at quarters / Cross pattée; G Є F R in quarters. Withers VI p. 31; O'S, Earliest 4; SCBI 10 (Ulster), pl. XVI, 11 var. (arrangement of rev. legend); D&F 41; SCBC 6222. Near VF, toned, obverse slightly off center. Very rare

Irish Coin Daily: Prince John’s Silver Mascle Farthing (Second Coinage, Waterford Mint / Gefrei)

Date: c. 1190-1199   Description: John (as Lord of Ireland), Silver Farthing (10mm, 0.27 g). Second (‘DOMinus’) coinage, Group II, cross pommée. Waterford mint; Gefrei, moneyer. Struck circa 1198-1199. Withers VI p. 31; O’S, Earliest 4; SCBI 10 (Ulster), pl. XVI, 11 var. (arrangement of rev. legend); D&F 41; SCBC 6222. Near Very Fine (aVF) Toned,…

Ireland, John (as Lord), Second coinage, Halfpenny, Kilkenny, type Ib, Waltex, waltex on re, obv. reads iohannes, 0.70g/9h (O'Sullivan obv. die 5/rev. die 2; SCBI Belfast 139; S 6215; DF 40b). Parts of legend flat, otherwise about very fine and extremely rare

Irish Coin Daily: Prince John’s Silver Halfpenny (Second Coinage, Kilkenny Mint / Waltrex)

Date: c. 1190-1199 Description: John (as Lord of Ireland), Second coinage, Halfpenny, Kilkenny, type Ib, Waltrex, 0.70g/9h (O’Sullivan obv. die 5/rev. die 2; SCBI Belfast 139; S 6215; DF 40b). About Very Fine (aVF) Parts of legend flat Extremely rare Obverse: Facing diademed head, legend around +IOHANNES Reverse: Voided cross potent, legend around +WALTREX KE Translates…