Irish Coin Daily: Hiberno-Norse Silver Penny (Phase I, Class C – HELMET Type) / Moneyer: FAEREMIN of Dublin

The Irish Coin Cabinet, Irish Coin Ddatabase, Old Currency Exchange, Dublin, Ireland

Date: 1009-1011

Hiberno-Norse, imitation Penny in the name of Aethelred (978-1016), Helmet type, 0.92g, Dublin, Faremin, armoured bust, (S.6115), very rare.

Hiberno-Norse, Phase I, Class C


Imitation Penny in the name of Aethelred, Helmet type, 0.92g, perforated in a few places and cracked, otherwise very fine and very rare. (S.6115)


  • Armoured bust left with radiate helmet
  • FAEREMIN (moneyer)
  • Hiberno-Norse Silver Penny (Phase I, Class C – Helmet Type) obverse legend FAEREMIN (moneyer)


  • Long cross voided, each limb terminating in three crescents over square with trefoil at each point
  • DUBLIN (mint)
  • Hiberno-Norse Silver Penny (Phase I, Class C – Helmet Type) reverse legend


Additional Information:

The British numismatist Michael Dolley classified Hiberno-Norse coins into seven distinct “phases”, covering a period of over 150 years.

About the year 995, Sihtric III “Silkbeard”, (also spelled Sitrick, Sigtrygg, Sitriuc and many other variants) King of Dublin, issued silver pennies that closely imitated the contemporary Anglo-Saxon coins of English King Aethelred II.

  • Some of Sihtric’s coins bear his own name, and spell out the name of Dublin (“DYFLIN,”); others simply copy the names of Aethelred and various English mints and moneyers.
  • These were the first coins struck in Ireland
    • The reason for issuing them was probably both
      • practical (to pay mercenaries)
      • symbolic (to enhance the king’s prestige by displaying his wealth and power)

Phase I coinage lasted 20-25 years, and went through several design changes.

  • The most common type imitates Aethelred’s “Long Cross” issue, bearing an obverse image of a bare-headed king draped in a cloak. The “voided cross” reverse could serve as a guide for cutting the coin into halves or quarters, since no smaller denominations were struck.
    • Class A          996-1001          Crux issue (King Aethelred II)
    • Class B        1002-1008          Long Cross issue (King Aethelred II)
    • Class C        1009-1011          Helmet issue (King Aethelred II)
    • Class D        1011-1016          Small Cross issue (King Aethelred II)
    • Class E        1016-1018          Quatrefoil issue (King Cnut)
    • Class F        1024-1030          Pointed Helmet issue (King Cnut) in the name of Sihtric – none known
    • Class ?        1024-1030          Pointed Helmet issue (King Cnut) in the name of Anlaf Sihtricsson – one ‘unique’ piece recently found


Further Reading:





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