Irish Coin Daily: Hiberno-Norse, Phase I Silver Penny, Aethelred of England (moneyer: FAEREMIN of Dublin)

Date: c. 995-1015

Hiberno-Norse, Phase I, Class B Penny, obv. AETHELRED REX AIGMNO, rev. long cross, FAEREMIN M·O DYFLI, 1.59g (SCBI BM 31-2, S 6106, DF 11)

Hiberno-Norse, Phase I, Class B Penny, Draped bust left with one pellet behind neck


An Hiberno-Norse. Phase I Penny. Dublin mint, moneyer: Færemin.

  • Weight: 1.59 g
  • References:
    • SCBI BM 31-2; S 6106; DF 11
  • Well-struck on a neat round flan, about extremely fine (aEF)
  • Slightly creased, but overall design is of a high grade and scarce


  • Draped bust left with one pellet behind neck
  • Slightly blundered legend:
      • (translates as “Aethelred, King of England”)


  • Long voided cross, with triple crescent ends and pellet in each angle
  • Unusually clear legend:
      • (translates as Moneyer = “Faeremin of Dublin”)


  • Ireland


  • Hiberno-Norse
    • Phase 1
  • Hammered


Additional Information:

During Phase II (c. 1018 to 1035) the coinage became lighter, possibly reflecting the declining fortunes of the Kingdom of Dublin.

  • Early Phase I coins weighed about 1.5 grammes (This is early Phase I @ 1.59g)
    • By Phase II the average weight of the coinage is reduced to 1.2 grammes

The inscriptions (legends) on Phase II coins are, typically, ‘blundered’

  • This is a numismatic term for mis-spelt, or a jumble of letters
    • bits of the name “Sihtric” and “Dyflin” are still often recognizable.
  • On the obverse of Phase II coins, a J-shaped symbol – interpreted as an inverted bishop’s crozier – sometimes appears behind the bust.
  • Small pellets, typically, appear in the angles of the long cross on the reverse.


Other Coins in this Series:

Further Reading:



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