Date: c. 1055/60-1065
Hiberno-Norse. Circa 1055/60-1065. AR Penny (17mm, 1.06 g, 3h). Phase IV (’scratched die’) coinage, Long Cross type. Uncertain mint signature and moneyer. O`S 22; SCBI 32 (Ulster), 310-5; D&F 25; SCBC 6134.
- Very Fine (VF)
- + IIII + IRIIONIIIOIIIO, draped bust left; numerous pellets around
- IMI IIIL IIIIR IIIM, voided long cross, with triple crescent ends; two pellets in first quarter, ‘hand’ symbol in second, trefoil of pellets in third, X and two pellets in fourth.
- Phase 4
- Class A
- Bust left / Long Cross type
- Phase 4
The brief Phase IV (c. 1055 – 1065) saw further deterioration in the weight and workmanship of the coins. It was a chaotic period in Ireland’s Late Medieval history, with various minor kingdoms and clans competing for control of the coastal towns.
- Hiberno-Norse rulers lost control of Dublin in 1052, and some of these Phase IV coins may have been struck at other locations, but we cannot be certain of where.
- Phase IV coins are described as ‘scratched die’ types, because the design seems to have been crudely scratched into the dies, rather than carefully engraved.
- O’Brien Coin Guide: Anglo-Saxon Coins & Their Links to Ireland
- O’Brien Coin Guide: Who Introduced Anglo-Saxon Coins to Ireland and why ?
- O’Brien Coin Guide: Introduction to the Hiberno-Norse Coinages of the Late 10th & Early 11th C