Cork, under Commonwealth authority, Farthing token, overstruck on a Double Tournois of Louis XIII

The Proliferation of Unofficial Irish ‘Farthing Tokens’ in the 17th Century

By the first half of the 17th C, the copper coinage in both Britain and Ireland was in complete disarray. Neither James I nor his son, Charles I, took much interest in providing small denominations and ‘farmed out’ the Royal prerogative of minting copper coins to ‘favourite’ courtiers as patentees – Lords Harington, Richmond, Lennox and Maltravers were the principal…

O’Brien Coin Guide: The Unofficial Irish Token Coinages of George III (1760-1820)

Introduction The late 18th century is a complicated time from the perspective of collecting tokens insofar as several dealers began to manufacture their own tokens for collectors, i.e. these did not circulate. They doubled and tripled their profits by deliberately producing mules, i.e. mis-matching obverse and reverse dies. They then increased their profits further by…