Irish Coin Daily: Hiberno-Norse Silver Penny (Phase I, Class D – Small Cross), Sihtric of Dublin (Moneyer: Leofwine of Chester)

Date: c. 995-1015

Hiberno-Norse Penny, Phase I, Class A CRUX (Sithric, King of Dublin), 18mm 0.93g, Moneyer Leofwine of Chester (O’S -, D&F 19, SCBC 6118)


An Hiberno-Norse Phase I, Class D (Small Cross) Silver Penny. Chester mint, moneyer: Leofwine.

  • Diameter: 18 mm
  • Weight: 0.69 g
  • References:
    • SCBI 32 (Belfast), 32 var. (legends); O’S -; D&F 19; SCBC 6118
  • Well-struck + well centred on a neat round flan, some die rust on obverse and a little porosity showing
    • Nine peck marks on reverse, thus used in more than just a few transactions
  • Good VF (gVF)
  • Very rare


  • Diademed and draped bust left
  • Slightly blundered legend:
      • (translates as “Sihtric, King of Dublin”)


  • Small cross pattée
  • Unusually clear legend:
      • (translates as Moneyer = “Leofwine of Chester”)


  • Ireland


  • Hiberno-Norse
    • Phase 1
      • Class D (Small Cross Issue)
  • Hammered

Additional Information:

During Phase II (c. 1018 to 1035) the coinage became lighter, possibly reflecting the declining fortunes of the Kingdom of Dublin.

  • Early Phase I coins weighed about 1.5 grammes
    • By Phase II the average weight of the coinage is reduced to 1.2 grammes

The inscriptions (legends) on Phase II coins are, typically, ‘blundered’

  • This is a numismatic term for mis-spelt, or a jumble of letters
    • bits of the name “Sihtric” and “Dyflin” are still often recognizable.
  • On the obverse of Phase II coins, a J-shaped symbol – interpreted as an inverted bishop’s crozier – sometimes appears behind the bust.
  • Small pellets, typically, appear in the angles of the long cross on the reverse.

Other Coins in this Series:

Further Reading:


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